Steeper rise of the curves at the beginning of heavy gases due to lower heat losses. Increasing power density by increasing the current causes a drop light output. For small power densities with heavy inert gas filling provides higher light output, but with increasing specific power advantage is shifting towards the lighter gases. For tubes 38 mm in diameter at specific loads, more than 2.5 times higher than optimal, filling neon gives a higher light output than filled with argon. Reduced pressure filling gas increases light output. Thus, when creating a lamp with a 4-5-fold overloaded compared to the standard replacement of neon and argon pressure drop to 200-267 Pa (1.5-2 mm Hg.
Art.) can give gain initial light output by 25-50% compared with a similar bulb filled with argon. Another method of solving the problem of choosing the optimal conditions for powerful filling tubes was proposed by IM Veselnitskim. Experimentally and theoretically, it was shown that at low pressure inert gas T Rez goes through a maximum, whose position with increasing PiCT shifted to lower pressures. Such a pattern most clearly marked for the heavy gas filling and large-diameter tubes (38.54 mm). On this basis it was suggested to fill the lamps with high PICT heavy inert gases (Ar, Kr) to much lower pressures than taken, lying close to the maximum g RSZ from ri.g. For example, the maximum iiPe3 high PiCT and 38-54 mm diameter tubes filled with argon is obtained for up to 13.3 Pa (0.1 mmHg.
Cent.). In this section of this category with PiCT = l, 6 W / cm is the standard Chgez fluorescent lamps with 80 W P = 0.5 W / cm. The initial light output by approximately 10-15% higher (depending on power) than when filled with neon to a pressure of 270 Pa (2 mmHg. Cent.). However, there are serious problems with the manufacture and working electrodes.
Market research, technology market research. Part 1: Good day! As always, we begin our discussion with a short greet, and then start rasskladyvat the challenges ahead. Marketing research – a very expensive technology. Talk about the software is not worth it. Because marketing is not programmny products that perform marketing research. Product news Marketing consists of a table Excel, which are driven all the necessary sales data and statistical studies.
Output at the appropriate schedules, access, and so on. But the program has done for you makrketingovoe study, no such products yet. Marketing techniques while standing still. Sonny Perdue gathered all the information. A methodology does not stand still. When market research is necessary to obtain expert opinion that know the market for several years. Which program would interrogate the very experts and get expert advice. Here's just it, people in marketing while laptop is not replaced. To obtain the opinion of experts need to find these experts.
Where we take the experts, but then again the internet offer us the necessary information. For more information see Michael Steinhardt, New York City. Maybe an acquaintance, someone you know may have long labors in this field. On the Internet, we are looking for experts on institutes, rectors, professors. Write letters to them, talk to them. How to write a letter to the expert, so he answered you? The first and most reliable way – is to offer him money. Yes, money opens any door. But not always. If a man really loves his job, a nice companion to it can not hurt. It may happen that a person needs extra ears (pardon the expression) that will be within a few hours to sit and listen to it story. The situations are different. But the necessary information from the experts need to get in anyway, otherwise you will not see success. The methodology is based on the marketing of statistics, data processing, the analyst. There a lot of techniques that determine the competitive environment, the competitiveness of the product itself. What I do not like marketing – so it is handling clients. When a sample of several thousand respondents, marketers make the analysis of consumer behavior, and then implement these observations into practice, and then we come across the bait.
high temperature steam ensures that also the partial destruction of the colonies of bacteria on the surface of products that prevents zakisanie products during drying. Gigrotermicheskaya treatment also reduces the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase, which reduces the darkening of the products to a minimum. After gigrotermicheskoy treatment remains the surface of a thin layer of denatured gluten, which prevents the exit of the particles of starch in the cooking water. Molded and dried pasta, cut to length and cutting mechanism for drying are placed on the surface of the drying conveyor dryers, either trough kassety.Sushka, stabilization and cooling pasta to prevent the flow of biochemical processes, products are conservation of dehydration – drying to a moisture content of 13%. Drying – the most prolonged stage of the production of pasta. On the correctness of this process depends on quality of finished products, such as strength, vitreous, acidity, structural integrity and appearance. Jill Schlesinger has plenty of information regarding this issue. Very intense drying leads to cracking, overly long – to zakisaniyu, drying in the bed – to the formation of bars and warping. Drying is usually complete when the moisture content of product 13.5 …
.14%, so that after cooling, the humidity was not more than 13%. Convective Convective drying method is based on how moisture exchange products and drying air. The drying process is the supply of moisture to the surface of the product turning it into steam and vapor removal from the surface of products, the drying air. This scheme is removed osmotically bound water. Adsorption related to the moisture turns to steam inside the product and in this form is moved to the surface. Simply put, the convective drying method – it's drying your blow dryer air, followed by removal of moisture from the dryer. When drying pasta convective method, the hot air has the following functions: product gives the heat required to convert water into steam, it absorbs from the surface of the product vapor and removes it from the surface.
At present, industrial production is pursued maximum precision and quality of parts produced at proizvodstve.V consequence of this the tool that is used in metalworking to apply strict trebovaniya.Odnim of such requirements is the surface roughness of the tool. Treated grinding wheel surface has a different shape and microroughnesses vysoty.Mikronerovnostyami called protrusions and cavities with small distances (pitch) between them arising at the surface. Totality of the irregularities with respect to small steps that make up the surface relief, is microgeometry or roughness surface. As a result of abrasive grains on the surface of the tool is applied to the processed a huge number of mikrotsarapin forming Micro-lined. The surface roughness can be longitudinal and transverse with different directions of machining marks, which is determined by the trajectory of the relative movement of the abrasive tool. Transverse roughness is considered in a section perpendicular to the main motion the grinding wheel relative to the treated surface, and longitudinal roughness – in a parallel direction.
On the surface of the sharpened microroughnesses have a relatively small size (6 to 0.5 microns or less). The height of asperities and polished surfaces have been brought even less generally 0,80-0,05 microns. According to GOST 2789-73 set the surface roughness, which is determined by the numerical values of the parameters Ra and Rz in the normalized base lengths. Microroughnesses on the cutting edge, and the conditional radius of rounding appear after sharpening tool in the form of pitting and serrations. Chipping edges define a plane rear surface. Under jaggedness understand chipping the cutting edge of the front surface of the projection on the rear surface. When measuring the roughness of cutting edges on the tool instead of a diamond needle use special diamond spatula. The roughness of the front and rear surfaces of the cutting tool has a significant influence on the cutting process, the nature of chip removal, on the coefficient of friction between the front surface and strand, between the back and treated surfaces. In the manufacture of parts multiserial engineering (automotive parts, motozapchasti, spare parts for agricultural machinery, etc.) should be used qualitative metal cutting tools, having no large surface roughness.
The danger of asteroid impact is not only the inspiration for Hollywood directors. Scientists discuss options for saving the planet from the threat. And, apparently, we can look ahead with optimism. The actual disposal of fatal flying mountains will be like a little movie, but one thing the writers are right to be put on nuclear weapons. To date, NASA has identified more than 90% of all near-Earth asteroids of sufficient size to cause a global catastrophe, that is, a diameter of 10 kilometers or more. Fortunately, none of them in the foreseeable future must face our planet. But this is not enough for complete peace of mind.
Interesting simulation performed David Dearborn, a physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It turns out that a nuclear explosion with 300 kilotons, produced on the surface of the 270-meter asteroid in just 15 days before the attack on his Earth (pilgrim will be outside the orbit of the Moon), is able to reject the object enough to the collision happened. – 97% resulting from the explosion debris pass by Earth, – says David. And the farther away the point undermining, the stronger the scattered fragments, the less they fall into the planet. And of radiation at a distance and say nothing. So all in such a scenario, it looks good. However, in some cases, as the results of another fresh research, the explosion ripped the asteroid may in a few hours to meet again, and get rid of it will not work. But a lot depends on the structure and composition of celestial rock.
By the way, recently the Japanese and American Scientists opened the capsule, brought from the asteroid, so that in this field of science you can count on going forward. 270 meters, for comparison, this is a dangerous size of Apophis, for which there is a chance of 1 in 250 000, that in 2036 he would hit in our planet. Such a “stone” can destroy a metropolis. And if scientists determine that the course leads him on a collision than a nuclear strike effective options we have virtually no remains. The slow methods such as rejection long-term asteroid bombardment powerful laser, the installation of solar sails, designed to divert the asteroid to the side, or work around the celestial mountain gravity tractor – not effective enough. Especially when it comes to more larger asteroids, and the time is still not enough. On the other hand, if prior to the crash remains a few years, the possible options. And even all the same nuclear explosion should work a little differently then .
We calculated the efficiency of the replacement of reinforced concrete structures stekloplastbetonnymi in operation in various aggressive environments synthetic fiber plants. SCOPE Fiberglass composite reinforcement: rebar used in accordance with the requirements of design documents for construction of buildings and structures of various naznacheniya.Armatura designed for use in industrial and civil, road stroitelstve.Primenenie concrete in concrete structures of buildings and structures of various naznacheniya.Dlya use in light and heavy concrete (foam concrete, slabs, in-situ foundations). In a layered brick masonry zdaniy.V as anchors for fastening the outer insulation of the walls zdaniy.V as nets and rods in konstruktsiyah.V as flexible ties of three-layer stone walls of buildings and structures of civil and industrial and agricultural construction, including the supporting layer, coated with a hard layer and at uteplitelya.Ispolzovanie bank stabilization. Maritime and port sooruzheniya.Kanalizatsiya, reclamation and vodootvedenie.Dorozhnoe fabric and infrastructure of chemical ograzhdenie.Elementy proizvodstv.Izdeliya of prestressed concrete with a relaxed and reinforcement (lighting columns, electric poles, insulators, transmission lines traverse, and road paving slabs, fence boards, borders, columns and pillars, railway sleepers, fittings for sewers, pipelines and trassoprovodnyh (district heating, cable channels) kommunikalnyh sistem.Pri erection of buildings to create non-removable opalubki.Perspektivno seymoustoychivyh zone buildings and structures both existing and newly constructed. The use of composite fiberglass reinforcement increases the service life of structures by 2-3 times compared with the use of steel reinforcement, especially when exposed to aggressive environments, including containing chloride salts, alkalis and acids.
BENEFITS Fiberglass Reinforcement: tensile strength is 3 times higher strength characteristics of steel bars of class AIII. Indicator of the ultimate strength of metal armature-390 MPa, the composite – at least 1000 MPa.Stekloplastikovaya fittings will not rust. Not subject to korrozii.Kislostoykaya. Resistant to sea vode.Stekloplastikovaya fixture has a high elastic .. Dielektrik.Kompozitnaya fiberglass reinforcement practically no … Does not change the properties under the influence of electromagnetic poley.Ne loses its strength properties when exposed to extremely low temperatures. Lighter metal reinforcement 9 times, at equiresistant replacement. Any construction length under the project requirements and the customer. The speed of production.
He spent three: and then you can enter the words you are looking for and want to give them to your traffic then words tracks gives you a percent of how many people they give click on the word you are looking for but remember that that product you are using is a free part of the program and does not give an exact percentage. And I recommend that you buy the program by which that program is a very helpful server and will allow you to start the product and will give you an exact percentage of what you want and are looking for in the. Step four: this step could be very important for that you have to have in mind that the more important word keys are looking for vas to you will find many skills and why you have to find a keyword that has an index or a percentage of a competition of at least below 300 and above 100 and also must have at least 1000 search search by day by that It will give you good search and good competition. For that competition? If you don’t have competition is by that does not seek or people looking for these keywords are people seeking free information but your what you want is people who buy. He spent five: once you are in program because you start to find all keywords that reach you in mind until you find one that has the percentage I gave you so that you have good results.
The author teaches easy comodinero completely free Internet without the need to buy a product. By please visit ganadineroelectronico.com and if you want to know more leave a comment or write me to and warmly I will answer what you want to know and remember information that I give you and I can give you is completely free without any payment. A hug and kisses.
Printing is a branch of production, bringing together the different ways the printed reproduction of text production, illustration, etc., in the form of newspapers, magazines, books, booklets, posters, labels, maps, forms and many other varieties of printed products. Printing Technology helps with the technical facilities to receive a specified number of identical copies of graphic images – letters, signs, drawings. The basis of the principle of printing reproduction, or transmission, in other words, the printing of the material, which is called the plate on a surface – printed material. There different ways to transfer images from the printing plate to the substrate. First – this is high (or typographic) method in which the printing elements are located above the non. When applied to printed form, it only covers the printing form, and thus only these elements will print on the printed material. The second way – intaglio printing, which is a mirror image of letterpress printing, which the printing area in the recess, and elevated white space. The third way – a flat printing, where print and non-printing areas are in the same plane.
In technology, conceived the idea of a flat print print first on a cylinder with an elastic (rubber) coating, and only after the image is transferred from the cylinder to the paper. Thus, the portable has been enhanced or offset printing, which reached a high time level. At present it is considered a universal technique of printing, offset printing is gradually displacing even from areas that are once her main area printing processes – processes of transfer of ink from printed form (sometimes using an intermediate medium such as a blanket cylinder) to the substrate, as well as related preparatory operations Printing – this is repeated to obtain the same images with the specified quality parameters by transferring ink from the printing plate (either directly or through an intermediate surface) na substrates.
Construction Excavators – self-propelled earth-moving machines, designed to develop and move the soil in the dump or vehicles. Scope of application: device channels, ditches, trenches, road cuts, construction of embankments and dams, work in quarries. A distinctive feature of excavators digging in a group and excavation machines is their expertise in the development and movement of soil only in the work zone. The operations on the Transport of soil in the earthworks (embankments, dams, etc.) carry out specially for this kit in transport vehicles. Due to the fact that the development of the soil and transporting it made in parallel by different machines, excavators productivity is higher than the earth-moving machinery of comparable power.
The effectiveness of this technical solution requires evaluation, as it increases the set of machines, but it is high performance and reliability have made the most common excavators and machinery leading to the earthworks. Historically, the development of construction excavator always been directed at maximum compliance of its consumer properties of technical and technological characteristics of the earthworks. The excavator was one of the first earth-moving machines. Back in 1500 Leonardo da Vinci's drawings of machines developed for the digging of canals, which became the prototype excavator with grab grip and crane. Russia's first bucket excavator was built on the Izhora plant in 1811, its capacity was only 11 kW (15 hp). In 1902 Putilov was built for 32 steam excavator with bucket 2.29 m, and in 1905 the German company has released a steerable steam shovel, bucket of 4 m.
In the future, excavators began to use electric and diesel engines. Increased their power. In 1947 in Russia were built at Uralmash excavators with bucket 3 … 5 m, and in 1975 in the same factory made walking dragline excavator with bucket capacity of 100 m. In 1987, excavators Park building complex our country totaled 171.3 thousand cars. The running equipment is tracked excavators, walking, pneumatic wheel, motor and buoyant. Track and especially walking equipment used for high-power excavators, working mainly on large, concentrated objects with large amounts of excavation. Especially effective is the availability of a replacement of working equipment, which allows for flexible excavation technology. For example, the presence of removable bucket at working equipment backhoe: normal, narrow, and shaped trench allows us to develop various project profile with minimal intervals for the conversion. These features ultimately reflected in the annual replacement and performance vehicles, expanding the scope of their management. Even this classification is coarsened shows the wide possibilities of excavators and justify their massive use in construction. – information about excavators
Makita Power Tools from the company is not in vain is one of the best in its class, which is why I would like to conduct a small survey among the novelties of the perforators of the manufacturer and compare them to previous models. For comparison, we take the easy perforatoryperforatory HR 1830, HR 2450 (network) and 162 BHR, BHR 240 RFE – powered by batteries. And the most interesting thing is that, according to the manufacturer, the battery model does not concede to their fellows, operating on the network. Thus, the first and is marked advantage of new models is that they can use in places where there is no network, and reach extension is problematic. It is also important weight and power tools: for the previous models it was 1.7 kg. model HR 1830 and 2.4 kg. model HR 2450. Cordless news BHR BHR 162 and 240 RFE weigh a little more, but this is not a weight limit for the drills, working without a net.
Secret lies in the fact that the development of these tools use the new Li-ion type battery with a voltage of 18V, which significantly reduces the weight, rather than the battery with the "voltages" to 36V. Here, of course, possible to argue and counter insufficient capacity battery of new drills to 18V, but, according to the manufacturer, special advantages in feeding 36V not present, since significantly to the power of the device is not affected. This figure only increases the weight punch that you will agree, is not quite comfortable for work. Among other useful features of new models should be noted increase to maximum speed in a model BHR 162 to 1500 r / min, compared with HR 1830 – 1100, BHR 240 RFE – is for more complex operations, there is a hammer mode. A basic, quality of the above – without the possibility of using the network, they are certainly ahead of its earlier counterparts.