A visual inspection identify and record the visible defects and damage, make control measurements, make the description, drawings, photographs of defective parts, make charts and statements of defects and damage to the fixing of places and nature. Are checking the availability of specific strains of the building or facilities and their individual building structures (troughs, banks, bending, distortions, cracks, etc.). Establish the existence of emergency areas, if any. According to the results of visual inspection is done preliminary assessment of the technical state of building structures, which is determined by the extent of damage and the characteristic signs of defects. If the results of visual inspection are not sufficient for the task, we conducted a detailed survey tool. In this case, if necessary, a program of works for detailed examination. A detailed instrumental survey Depending on the objectives, the availability and completeness of technical documentation, the nature and extent of defects and damage may be total (complete) or selective. The continuous survey carried out when: * no design documentation * defective structures, reducing their carrying capacity; * buildings are being reconstructed with an increase in activity (including number of floors) * resumes construction interrupted for more than three years without conservation measures * in similar structures found differing material properties, changes in operating conditions under the influence of aggressive environment or circumstances type of technological processes, etc.
A sample survey carried out: * if necessary, examination of individual structures; * in potentially dangerous areas, where due to the unavailability of structures can not conduct a continuous survey. Calculation of the buildings and the definition of effort in structural elements of the operating loads are based on methods of structural mechanics and strength of materials. Assessment categories technical condition of bearing structures are based on test results and calibration calculations. By design this estimate is divided into: being in good condition, good working state, partially operable, and an invalid state disrepair. nformation. With good working condition and operation of structures under actual loads and impacts can not restrictions. In addition, for structures that are in working order, can be established requirement of periodic in-service surveys. With limited working condition of structures necessary control over their situation, the implementation of protective measures, monitoring the process parameters of operation (eg limit loads, protecting structures from corrosion, repair, or strengthening structures).
If a limited workable designs are unboosted, it requires mandatory appointments, deadlines are established on the basis of the survey. At invalid state structures necessary to carry out measures for their rehabilitation and strengthening. When an emergency state structures of their exploitation should be banned. Who should conduct an independent building expertise? Currently, expert activity is not licensed. Availability of necessary licenses and certificates is determined depending on the purpose of the examination. For example, for pretrial and trial expertise is desirable from the expert forensic certificate or equivalent certificates / diplomas. Visual and instrumental examination may be partial to conduct any expert of the company, in the presence of the necessary expertise. To conduct work on the survey bearing structures of buildings and structures permitted by the organization, equipped with the necessary instrument and tool base, having in its composition skilled workers. Laboratory studies should be performed only by specialized laboratory corresponding profile. Independent construction expertise – this is an indispensable tool of all participants of the construction process at all stages of its implementation and subsequent operation.