Gramophone record dates back to the music library – store recordings, where the shelves are lined with shelves with reels of magnetic tape. On this tape recording is transferred to the lacquered disc with a special cutting tool recorder, carving a sound track. Electrical signals are converted to tape the mechanical vibrations of the tool. At the same lacquer disc is rotating at a constant rate. The cutter is cutting out the groove, moving in from the edge to center. Lacquer disc is a precision product. Basis (substrate) is a thin aluminum sheet.
On the substrate (base) applied on both sides of a special lacquer coating thickness of about 0.2 mm. In the process of lakonaneseniya excluded the possibility that the extraneous inclusions larger than 1 micron. The lacquer is applied in a sterile room in which the air flows through a complicated system of dust collection. For lacquer and impose strict requirements on filtering, application and subsequent drying. The recorder is a precision electro-mechanical machine, which records on lacquer disc. In the room where he was also supported by the sterile cleanliness. To prevent parasitic vibrations that can be transmitted to the chisel, the recorder is set on a strong base, and have no links with the building itself.
The tape passes through the coil recorder, excites in them an electrical current. The cores of coils begin to oscillate with a cutter, slicing, so that the grooves. Formed with the chip is removed by vacuum suction, adjacent to the cutter. The cutter is designed as a cutting tool, rather complex in its geometry, which has microscopic dimensions. Tool for fine wire is wound. The electric current passing through it, heating causes the tool to 200-300 C. Hot chisel to cut a layer of varnish groove smoother and softer, thus minimizing the noise level. Sapphire – the main material used for the manufacture of cutting tools. Diamond, a very expensive, rarely used. The process of cutting the track follows the operator. Originally had to use a microscope, which is very tired eyes. But later on the cutting head equipped with a tiny camera, which made it possible to observe the process, looking at the monitor. Burn to disc lacquer so obtained is identical to the magnetic sound track. Of the lacquer disc are originals by nickel electroforming. This electrochemical method allows you to make exact copies of the microrelief tracks. The first may be the original matrix, it can be pressed from shellac. On the one matrix can be made several hundred vinyl records. If the order of records in the thousands of pieces, an additional matrix. For this disc does not apply the varnish. In a bath of electrolyte is placed first original, and with it removed second original. As soon as he received his check at the hearing by placing a special player. When defects are detected, it is sometimes the studio recording a new lacquer disc. But in most cases for the work is taken factory jeweler-engraver, who, through their tools and techniques eliminates defects distort the sound. When defects are eliminated, are engaged in the manufacture of matrices. With the restored drive the electrochemical method receive third original. For many thousands of editions of vinyl records from the third source are fourth. He was sent to the factory of records, where, using the same electroplating, make necessary number of matrices, depending on circulation.